LIM kinases (LIMKs) are important cell cytoskeleton regulators that play a prominent role in cancer manifestation and neuronal diseases. The LIMK family consists of two homologues, LIMK1 and LIMK2, which differ from one another in expression profile, intercellular localization, and function. The main substrate of LIMK is cofilin, a member of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) protein family. When phosphorylated by LIMK, cofilin is inactive. LIMKs play a contributory role in several neurodevelopmental disorders and in cancer growth and metastasis. LIM domain kinases (LIMK1 and 2) are substrate for Cdc42/Rac-PAK, and modulate actin dynamics by phosphorylating cofilin at serine-3. This modification inactivates cofilin’s actin severing and depolymerizing activity. LIMKs also translocate into the nucleus and regulate cell cycle progression. LIMKs are potential therapeutic targets for NF2 and other merlin-deficient tumors.